Peter Lomas - Unnatural States : The International System and the Power to Change read online ebook PDF, TXT, MOBI
This book is about politics, political theory, and political philosophy. Although these disciplines are often conflated because they interact, they are distinct. Political theory is part of political science, whereas political philosophy is a hybrid of political theory and philosophy. The former discipline is descriptive and explanatory, whereas the latter is prescriptive-to the point that it is often called "normative theory" It is in fact the evaluative study of political societies. Whereas political theorists describe and explain politics, political philosophers examine it critically and venture to suggest improvements and, on occasion, radically different social futures. Political philosophers propose scenarios and dreams where political scientists offer snapshots of existing polities. While these disciplines are distinct, Mario Bunge asserts that they must inform each other. 2008 - ISBN: 978-1-4128-0828-6 (cloth) The great writings of the past on the subject of international relations add an important dimension to the contemporary study of the field. The Theory of International Relations consists of substantial selections from authors whose ideas should be readily available to all students of international relations. All the passages selected by the editors ask fundamental theoretical questions searching for the essence of interstate relations. This quest for answers carries the reader into investigations of the causes of war, the balance of power, the relationship between international relations and the political theory of the state, and other major issues concerning this subject. Book jacket., Unnatural States is a radical critique of international theory, in particular, of the assumption of state agency--that states act in the world in their own right. Peter Lomas argues that since the universal states system is inequitable and rigid, and not all states are democracies anyway, this assumption is unreal, and to adopt it means reinforcing an unjust status quo. Looking at the concepts of state, nation, and agency, Lomas sees populations struggling to find an agreed model of the state, owing to inherited material differences; and unsurprisingly, among theorists of the nation, only controversy and a great confusion of terms. Meanwhile, the functional incarnations of the state agent are caricatures: the mandarin state, the lawyer state, the landlord state, the heir-to-history state, and the patriot state. Yet recent developments in international theory (constructivism, scientific realism, postmodernism) sacrifice state agency only at the price of an unhelpful abstraction. The states system is dysfunctional and obsolete, Lomas contends, and international theory must be recast, with morality as central, to inspire and to guide historic change. He focuses in his conclusion on prescriptions for change, led by four moral concerns: human rights, weapons of mass destruction, relations between rich and poor societies, and the environment. "I begin this book," writes Lomas, "with the commonest commonplace of international theory, to expose it as a meaningless clichE. In the masterly hands of Hobbes, it was elaborated into a shock formula for organized society, a reading of history as civilization's failure. Kant sought to rescue morality from Hobbes and create the structures of modernity, but Kant's influence is coming to an end. In the Cold War, politicians disagreeing over another philosopher almost brought the world to an end. Hence the challenges of our time. These are primary and profound. Philosophers have done much to define the modern world. The point of international theory is to change it."
Unnatural States : The International System and the Power to Change by Peter Lomas ebook MOBI, EPUBProviding practical, step-by-step assistance on how to actually conduct research, the text offers chapters on: Project design Data collection using a range of methods, including poetry, story-telling, short-film, photography, visual art and music Data analysis Dissemination.At least forty per cent of internal conflicts globally are related to natural resources and the business community's preferred method for avoiding their implication in this figure is CSR.
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